Location estimation of partial discharge-based electromagnetic source using multilateration with time difference of arrival method
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In high-voltage systems partial discharges (PD) may occur due to the degradation of insulation materials in addition to different scenarios such as material properties, construction, setup and operation conditions. Especially for a power transformer, the degradation of inner insulation may prevent regular operation and hence cause failure. In a long time period even low-level PD activity may cause degradation on the insulator. If the deterioration caused by the PD is detected in an early phase, potential damage may be prevented. Due to the complex and close structure of power transformers and other high-voltage systems, it is not easy to estimate the exact location of a PD. This study proposes a novel approach to detect and analyze an artificial PD in a laboratory room setup, which is especially designed for simulation of possible PD source in a large scale structure such as power transformer. Electromagnetic (EM) PD sensors are commonly used to detect electromagnetic pulses emitted from PD sources. In this work, the time differences of arrivals (TDOA) which are obtained from PD signals are subjected to multilateration technique to estimate the exact location. A novel energy level method is introduced to overcome correct TDOA extraction problem. Cramer-Rao bound (CRB) is used for calculation of the minimum achievable estimation error of proposed method. In order to display the accuracy of location estimation, CRB and the mean square error graphics of the estimated location parameters are given for the comparison.