Are cerebrospinal fluid protein levels and plasma neutrophil/lymphocyte ratio associated with prognosis of Guillain BarrE syndrome?
Guillain Barre syndrome (GBS) is a post-infectious acute autoimmune polyradiculopathy. Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) total protein level and plasma neutrophil/lymphocyte ratio (NLR) are related with autoimmune response. We aimed to reach a prognostic indicator for GBS by using electrophysiological findings, protein level of CSF, and plasma NLR based on Medical Research Council (MRC) sum score data. Cases who met diagnostic criteria of GBS and followed at least six months were enrolled in the study. Nerve conduction study (NCS) and lumbar puncture were performed one week after symptom onset. Routine CSF findings and complete blood count were recorded. Plasma NLR was calculated as the ratio of neutrophil cell count to lymphocyte cell count. All patients received intravenous immunoglobulin. MRC sum scores were calculated on administration time (1(st)) and six months later (2(nd)) for evaluation of recovery. Mean values of baseline CSF protein level, NCS parameters and NLR were compared with mean scores of MRC1st and MRC(2n)d. Increased CSF protein levels showed negative correlation with MRC(2n)d scores but no correlation with NCS. Increased NLR levels were positively correlated with age, MRC2nd scores and NCS. Facial diplegia was observed in 42% of patients. A positive correlation was found between high level of NLR and MRC1st, and there was no relationship with MRC2nd. Regression analyses showed that only CSF protein level was an independent factor on both MRC1st and MRC2nd. A positive association was found between baseline data included young age high plasma NLR, low level of CSF protein and good prognosis in our study. Also a positive correlation was found between high level of NLR and baseline disability in GBS cases with facial diplegia. Calculation of NLR is an easy and inexpensive method. On the other hand it may be influenced by age and immunotherapy. Our results showed that CSF protein level is still a liable parameter for prognosis. NLR could be a candidate prognostic marker of GBS cases. Further investigations including more cases are needed.