Adaptation, validity, and reliability study of the Five-Factor Gambling Motives Scale
Objective: This study aimed to adapt and to test the validity and the reliability of the Five-Factor Gambling Motives Scale (GMS) that was developed to explore the gambling motivation variables. It was hypothesized that, as in the original study amusement, excitement, socialization, monetary gains, avoidance factors would emerge from the scale. Methods: The sample consisted of 354 voluntary male participants who were above age 18 and betting in betting terminals, in Istanbul. The internal reliability of the scale was explored by examining the Cronbach's alpha coefficient. For the validity evaluation South Oaks Gambling Screen, Positive Affect Negative Affect Schedule, and average time devoted to gambling-related affairs were assessed. Results: Factor analysis revealed a four-factor solution in which amusement and excitement factors merged under a single factor. The reliability of the Turkish version of the GMS was supported by the Cronbach's alpha values found as 0.89, 0.86, 0.79, 0.81, and 0.76 respectively for the whole scale and amusement/excitement, socialization, monetary gains, and avoidance factors whereas the validity of the scale was supported by the significant associations of the factors found with participants' average time devoted to gambling and gambling severity scores. Discussion: The results of the study were discussed with respect to the necessity for gambling-related Turkish measurement instruments and the four-factor solution of the Turkish form of GMS in the light of the relevant literature.