Intracellular Adhesion Molecule (ICAM-1), Vascular Cell Adhesion Molecule (VCAM-1) and E-Selectin Levels in First Episode Schizophrenic Patients
Objectives: The aim of this study was to compare the levels of intracellular adhesion molecule (ICAM-1), vascular cell adhesion molecule (V-CAM-1) and E-selectin, which are considered as possible biological determinants in prognosis and progression of atherosclerosis, in schizophrenia patients pre-and post-treatments and healthy controls. Methods: In Erenkoy Research and Training Hospital for Mental and Neurological Disorders, drug naive 50 patients with a diagnosis of first episode schizophrenia according to the DSM-IV-TR diagnostic criteria, and a control group consisting of 50 healthy volunteers were enrolled in this study. Plasma levels of ICAM-1, VCAM-1, E-selectin, fasting blood glucose, total cholesterol, LDL cholesterol, HDL cholesterol, and triglycerides of the patients were measured at the beginning of the study (n = 50) and at the end of the third month (n = 39), and compared. The same biochemical parameters of the controls were measured at only the beginning of the study. In order to assess the termination of the acute episode, the Positive Symptoms Assessment Scale (SAPS) and Negative Symptoms Assessment Scale (SANS) were applied to the patients at the beginning of the study and at the end of the third month. Results: The average age of patients experiencing their first episode of schizophrenia was 30.14 +/- 7.50. The initial ICAM-1 levels of the patients were lower than those of the control group (t= 3.41, p=.001), and increased after treatment (t=-6.73 p< .001), while there was no difference in the VCAM-1 and E-selectin levels of the patients and controls (t=-1.23, p=.223; t=-0.32 p=.750, respectively). Also, post-treatment VCAM-1 levels were lower than the initial levels (t=7.17, p<.001). The average levels of fasting blood glucose, total cholesterol, LDL cholesterol, HDL cholesterol and triglycerides were similar in the control and patient groups, while a significant increase was observed in triglyceride levels of patients with schizophrenia after treatment (t=-3.19, p=.003). Conclusion: The levels of cellular adhesion molecules of individuals experiencing a first episode of schizophrenia were not different from controls, with the exception of the levels of ICAM-1. Cellular adhesion molecules were observed to act differently, as reflected by the recorded plasma levels during treatment. The antipsychotics used in the treatment of schizophrenia increased ICAM-1 and decreased VCAM-1. This study is limited by the size of the patient population, the lack of treatment control, the possibility that the disease may not have a homogeneous structure and other possible unknown confounding factors.