Philanthropy and Social Sciences in the Context of Struggle for Hegemony: The Case of Yalova Conference in 1953
The ideological struggle between the two blocs of the Cold War had profound impact on intellectual life and cultural and artistic production. In this regard, university and social sciences became the areas of the struggle to establish hegemony. Following the Second World War there occurred two significant tendencies in the social sciences in the US. First was the dominance of empiricism as the methodology of social sciences and second was the development of 'Cold War Orientalism', which preserves the idea of Western superiority but suggests analyzing the non-West with the help of Western social science disciplines. This study scrutinizes the role of the Rockefeller Foundation in the pervasion of the American social science approach and supplying local knowledge for the developing area studies through the foundation's research supports, particularly in the non-West. The activities of the foundation in Turkey are analyzed in this context. Particularly, the social science conference that held in 1953 in Yalova was examined as an example to the foundation's activities in Turkey. The debates during the conference are important since they give hints of the reaction to the American impact as well as the extent of American influence.