The Protective Effects of Spirulina in Cyclophosphamide Induced Nephrotoxicity and Urotoxicity in Rats
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OBJECTIVE To evaluate the role of Spirulina, a blue-green algae with antioxidant properties in the protection of cyclophosphamide-induced nephrotoxicity and hemorrhagic cystitis in rats. METHODS The control group (C) was sacrificed 24 hours after being given a single dose of saline intraperitoneally (150 mg/kg) on the seventh day of the experiment. The rats in the second group (CP) were sacrificed 24 hours after being given a single dose of cyclophosphamide, intraperitoneally (150 mg/kg) on the seventh day of the experiment. Spirulina was administered to the third group (SP + CP) orally (1000 mg/kg bw/day) for 7 days and a single dose of cyclophosphamide was injected intraperitoneally (150 mg/kg) on the seventh day of the experiment. At the eighth day of the experiment, malondialdehyde, superoxide dismutase, and catalase levels in renal and urinary bladder tissues were measured. Histomorphology in urinary bladder, apoptosis by caspase 3 immunostaining, and TUNEL assay in kidney were also evaluated. RESULTS Tissue levels of malondialdehyde in the SP + CP group were significantly lower versus CP group (P < .05). Tissue levels of superoxide dismutase and catalase in the SP + CP group were significantly higher vs the CP group (P < .05). The histomorphologic alteration in urinary bladder in the SP + CP group was significantly lower vs that in the CP group. In the kidney, apoptosis in the SP + CP group as shown with TUNEL assay and immunohistochemistry was significantly lower vs that in the CP group (P < .05). CONCLUSION Pretreatment with Spirulina protects the rats from cyclophosphamide-induced nephro-urotoxicity via its antioxidant and anti-apoptotic properties. UROLOGY 80: 1392.e1-1392.e6, 2012. (C) 2012 Elsevier Inc.