Effects of hormone replacement therapy on glucose and lipid profiles and on cardiovascular risk parameters in postmenopausal women
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The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of hormone replacement therapy (HRT) on carbohydrate and lipid metabolisms and cardiovascular risk parameters in healthy postmenopausal women. Forty women receiving and 38 women not receiving HRT were included and baseline and sixth month blood pressure, weight, body mass index, waist/hip ratio, blood lipid profile, inflammatory markers (homocysteine, C-reactive protein (CRP) and fibrinogen), hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) and insulin, and oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) results were evaluated. The mean age was 52.6 +/- A 4.9 and 52.2 +/- A 5.0 years in the HRT and Control Groups, respectively. Whereas there was no change in the Controls, the weight, waist/hip ratio, and BMI increased and diastolic blood pressure decreased in the HRT patients. LDL-c, VLDL-c and lipoprotein (a) levels were significantly higher in the HRT Group in the sixth month; however, total cholesterol and LDL-c increased in the Controls but VLDL-c and lipoprotein (a) did not. CRP and homocysteine significantly increased and fibrinogen decreased, whereas in the Control Group no significant change was detected. A significant improvement in HbA1c and OGTT was found in both the groups, whereas a significant reduction was measured only in the HRT Group. In response to 6 months of HRT, there was an increase in weight, BMI, and waist/hip ratio as known cardiovascular risk factors, but no significant impact on lipid profile and glucose metabolism could have been clearly demonstrated. A mixed effect profile of HRT on the state of inflammation (increase in CRP and homocysteine, decrease in fibrinogen) was observed.