A retrospective study on the epidemiology and treatment of maxillofacial fractures
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BACKGROUND Maxillofacial injuries constitute a substantial proportion of cases of trauma. This descriptive analytical study assesses the cause, type, incidence, and demographic and treatment data of maxillofacial fractures. METHODS A retrospective study on maxillofacial traumas was carried out in the Department of Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery at Sisli Etfal Hospital (Istanbul, Turkey) between January 1, 2000 and December 31, 2005. The study included 216 patients with a mean age of 29.8 years. Sex and age distribution of patients, etiology of trauma, localization of the fractures, treatment modalities, time to treatment after the trauma, and postoperative complications were recorded. RESULTS The male predilection was 75.5%. Road traffic accident was the most common causative factor (67.1%), followed by interpersonal violence (19.4%), falls (12.5%), and work- and sport-related accidents (0.9%). A total of 50% of the patients suffered isolated mandibular fractures, 23.6% had isolated midface fractures, and 26.3% had combined midface and mandibular fractures. Regarding distribution of mandibular fractures, the majority (26.8%) occurred in the parasymphysis, 14.8% in the angulus, and 11.1% each in the symphysis and corpus. Complications occurred in 6% of patients, and the most common was malocclusion followed by infection and nonunion. CONCLUSION The causes and pattern of maxillofacial fractures reflect trauma patterns within the community and, as such, can provide a guide for the design of programs geared toward prevention and treatment.