Early and late outcomes of carotid artery stenting
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Objective: Carotid artery stenting is a new approach alternative to surgical carotid endarterectomy. Cerebral protection devices improved the applicability of this technique. In this study, we evaluated applicability, safety and late clinical outcomes of percutaneous interventions for carotid artery stenosis. Methods: A prospective study included 26 patients (15 female, 11 male, mean age 70 16 years) undergoing percutaneous transluminal angioplasty and stenting with different sizes of balloons and stents for 28 internal carotid artery stenoses at Kadir Has University Department of Interventional Radiology between March 2002 and December 2004. Ten patients were asymptomatic, one had amaurosis fugax, four had transient ischemic attack within last four months, one had drop attacks, one had headache, seven had the findings of hemiparesis and three had hemiplegia. Results: Stenosis rates were calculated according to North America Symptomatic Carotid Endarterectomy Trial. Median stenosis rate was 85% (range: 60%-95%). All of the 28 internal carotid artery stenoses were managed with balloon dilatation and stenting (technical success rate 100%). Median residual stenosis rate after procedure was 14% (range: 0%-30%). Asystole developed in five patients and bradycardia in eight patients. Ipsilateral middle cerebral artery infarction occurred in two patients. One patient had intracranial reperfusion bleeding four hours after the procedure. No procedural death was observed within one month of follow-up. One patient died of myocardial infarction four months after the procedure. Cranial computed tomography revealed multiple metastases in one patient complaining of intractable headache and primary source was found to be pulmonary carcinoma. No stent restenosis was defined at Doppler ultrasonographic examinations performed 6 and 12 months after procedures with normal flow patterns and velocities. Two patients underwent control angiography at 12th month and myointimal proliferations with insignificant obstruction (25% and 30%) were detected. Conclusion: Carotid artery stenting seems to be applicable and safe procedure but it is associated with infrequent major complications. Results of studies comparing surgery and angioplasty will be helpful in defining role of stenting in the treatment of carotid occlusive disease.