Dönüşümsel ve etkileşimsel liderlik ile lider-üye etkileşiminin öğretmenlerin örgütsel vatandaşlık davranışı üzerindeki etkisi
MetadataShow full item record
CitationÇetin, Ş., Korkmaz, M. ve Çakmakçı, C. (2012). Dönüşümsel ve etkileşimsel liderlik ile lider-üye etkileşiminin öğretmenlerin örgütsel vatandaşlık davranışı üzerindeki etkisi / Effects of transformational and transactional leadership and leader-member exchange on teachers’ organizational citizenship behaviors. Kuram ve Uygulamada Eğitim Yönetimi. 1(1), s. 7-36.
Bu çalışma, ilköğretim okulu öğretmenlerinin örgütsel vatandaşlık davranışı ile okul müdürlerinin dönüşümsel ve etkileşimsel liderliğinin ve öğretmenlerle geliştirdikleri etkileşimin bu davranış üzerindeki etkisini incelemektedir. Çalışmaya Ankara ili merkez ilçelerindeki ilköğretim okullarında görev yapan 659 öğretmen katılmıştır. Değişkenler arasındaki doğrudan ve dolaylı ilişkileri açıklamak için Path analizi kullanılmıştır. Ulaşılan bulgular öğretmenlerin orta düzeyde örgütsel vatandaşlık davranışı sergilediğini göstermektedir. Dönüşümsel liderlik müdür ile öğretmenler arasındaki ilişkinin niteliğini ve öğretmenlerin örgütsel vatandaşlık davranışını güçlü bir biçimde olumlu etkilemektedir. Etkileşimsel liderliğin müdür-öğretmen arasındaki etkileşim ve öğretmenlerin örgütsel vatandaşlık davranışı üzerindeki etkisi anlamlı ve olumsuzdur. Müdür-öğretmen etkileşiminin öğretmenlerin örgütsel vatandaşlık davranışı üzerindeki etkisi anlamlı ve olumludur.Background: A major concern of organizational theorists and practitioners is organizational effectiveness. Quite essential for achieving this is the willingness of employees to go beyond the the call of duty i.e. formal job or role description. This extra mile is termed organizational citizenship behaviour (OCB) (Bolino & Turnley, 2000, s. 60-71). Organ (1988) defines OCB as “individual behavior that is discretionary, not directly or explicitly recognized by the formal reward system, and in the aggregate promotes the efficient and effective functioning of the organization.” As such “the behavior is not enforceable, but rather a matter of personal choice, and its omission is not generally punishable.” The willingness of organization members to go beyond the call of duty is considered to be one of the biggest factors contributing to organizational success and effectiveness. Schools are no exception. It is basically school administration’s responsibility to promote such extra role behavior among teachers and such an undertaking calls for strong leadership on the part of school principals. There is considerable amount of research (Bass, 1985, 1997, 1999; Bass & Avolio, 1990; Bycio, Hackett & Allen, 1995; Hater & Bass, 1988; Podsakoff, MacKenzie, Moorman & Fetter, 1990 in Nguni, Sleegers, & Denesen, 2006) associating transformational leadership, among other leadership styles and transactional leadership, with OCB. Yet equally important as principal leadership is the quality of leadermember (principal-teacher) exchange through which leadership behaviors influence follower (teachers’) performance. The best example of this perspective is the leader–member exchange (LMX) theory of leadership originated by Graen and his colleagues. LMX theory holds that leaders establish different social exchange relationships with different followers. Problem. Research shows that employee citizenship is closely related with leadership. Yet equally important as leadership behaviors and styles is the perceived quality of the relationship between the leader and the follower (Podsakoff, MacKenzie, & Bommer, 1996). Perceptions regarding the quality of the leader-member exchange strengthen the influence of leadership and as such exert significant influence on OCB (Piccolo & Colquit, 2006). High quality leader-member exchange reflects a loyalty of both parties to the relationship readily bringing about unwritten expectations to reciprocate through higher performance. Consequently leader-member exchange is believed to be a moderating variable in the relationship between (transformational and transactional) leadership and organizational citizenship behavior (Wang, Law, Hackett, Wang, & Chen, 2005). In the light of the discussions presented above, this study aims to find out; 1. the level of OCB that primary school teachers in cosmopolitan Ankara schools display, 2. the influence of transformational and transactional principal leadership on teachers’ organizational citizenship, 3. the influence of transformational and transactional principal leadership on the quality of principal-teacher exchange, and finally 4. the influence of the quality of principal-teacher exchange on teachers’ OCBs. Method. The universe of the reseach consists of primary school teachers in 6 metropolitan districts of Ankara: Altındağ, Çankaya, Etimesgut, Keçiören, Mamak and Yenimahalle. According to the official statistics of district education authorities there are a total of 478 primary schools and 18320 teachers working at these schools as of the academic year 2009-2010. Sample of the study comprised of teachers working at 30 primary schools - 5 randomly selected primary schools from each district. Following due legal procedures, research was carried out between March and June 2010. In the first and pilot phase, questionnaires were given to 352 teachers and reliability and validity of batteries was computed. In the second phase questionnaires were distributed to teachers working at 30 specified schools. 659 questionnaire sheets were collected and analyzed. The first questionnaire was Multi-Factor Leadership Questionnaire (MLQ) developed by Bass and Avolio, the second questionnaire was LeaderMember-Exchange Multi-Dimensional Scale-12 (LMX-MDM-12) developed by Liden and Maslyn (1998) and the third questionnaire was Organizational Citizenship Scale adapted to Turkish by Basım and Şeşen (2006). Collected data were analyzed using LISREL. Findings. Findings of the study show that teachers display a moderate level of organizational citizenship behavior on average and in terms of factors teachers display higher levels of conscientiousness with lower level of standard deviation; meaning possibly that such behavior is more deeply ingrained in teachers’ professional identity. There exists a significant positive relationship between principals’ transformational leadership and both leader-member exchange and teachers’ organizational citizenship. The relationship between principals’ transactional leadership and leadermember exchange and teachers’ organizational citizenship is significant yet negative. Further analysis into the effects of factors of transactional leadership on principal-teacher exchange and teachers’ organizational citizenship show that management by exceptions (passive) and laissez-faire leadership have a significant and negative effect on both variables. Management by exceptions (active) has a significant and negative effect on principal-teacher exchange but its effect on OCB is not significant. Contingent reward has a significant and positive effect on both leadermember exchange and teacher citizenship. Finally leader-member exchange has a significant and positive effect on teacher citizenship. Discussion. The modarate level of organizational citizenship displayed by teachers could be interpreted as a sign of a less-than-desired level of belongingness towards the organization they are working for. Yet relatively higher levels of conscientiousness (with again a lower standard deviation) could hint that it is the organizations (i.e. schools) rather than the profession per se to which they feel less-than-desired levels of belongingness. Because conscientious behaviors seem to have become a part of teachers’ professional identity. Another significant finding of the study is the positive organizational outcomes with which transformational leadership is associated in contrast to the negative organizational outcomes that transactional leadership brings about. Transformational leadership improves relationships among the teachers as well as the relationship between the principal and teacher. As a result teachers feel more inclined to devote extra effort for each other and for the organization. Transactional leadership on the other hand is not perceived by teachers as a desirable form of leadership. Especially such passive behaviors of transactional leaders as management by exceptions and laissez-faire (or non) leadership deteriorate relationships among teachers and undermine teachers’ willingness to perform extra role behaviors for the principal and for each other. As such these two leadership behaviors seem to be the worst forms of leadership and principals should be cautioned to avoid assuming such a passive style of leadership. Finally, by proving that the quality of principal-teacher exchange has a positive effect on teacher citizenship, the study provides scientific evidence for the intuition that a person does not mind working harder for a superior he/she personally likes.
SourceKuram ve Uygulamada Eğitim Yönetimi
- Makale Koleksiyonu 
The following license files are associated with this item: