Objective measures of sleep in fibromyalgia syndrome: Relationship to clinical, psychiatric, and immunological variables
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We aimed to investigate the changes in the objective and subjective sleep variables during painful episodes of fibromyalgia and post-episode period, and to evaluate the impact of the sleep variables on the current clinical, psychological, and immunologic parameters. Thirty-one consecutive patients who were referred to the Erenköy Physical Therapy and Rehabilitation Polyclinic with a diagnosis of fibromyalgia were evaluated before and in the sixth week of the acute pain treatment. The sleep variables were measured by polysomnography, Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index, and Epworth Sleepiness Scale. The clinical and psychiatric assessment of patients was performed by using Fibromyalgia Impact Questionnaire; Patient Health Questionnaire-Somatic, Anxiety, and Depressive Symptoms; and Visual Analog Scale. Serum pro-inflammatory molecules were measured to evaluate the immunological status. The pain treatment significantly affected subjective sleep variables, psychiatric variables, clinical variables, and IL-6 levels. The subjective sleep parameters, clinical and psychiatric variables, and IL-6 levels were improved with pain treatment in fibromyalgia. The objective sleep variables, IL-1 and TNF-alpha levels were not significantly improved with the pain treatment, and they were not related to clinical presentation of patients with fibromyalgia. Subjective variability of sleep contributes to the clinical presentation, suggesting that the objective structure is trait-specific with IL-1 and TNF-alpha. © 2018 Elsevier B.V.