Multiple Imaging Modalities Including Three-Dimensional Echocardiography in Left Ventricular Pseudoaneurysm After Mitral Valve Replacement
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Left ventricular pseudoaneurysm (LVPA) after mitral valve replacement (MVR) is a rare condition. The diagnosis of LVPA may be difficult, and for accurate diagnosis, two-dimensional (2D) transthoracic echocardiography (TTE) should be used in combination with other imaging modalities such as multiple detector computed tomography (MDCT) and three-dimensional (3D) TTE. Herein is presented a late type of post-MVR pseudoaneurysm in a 72-year-old female who was admitted to the authors' emergency department with complaints of dyspnea. She had undergone MVR five years previously. A diagnosis was made via 2D TTE, supported by 3D TTE and contrast-enhanced CT. Although aneurysmectomy was performed the patient died due to cardiogenic shock. To the authors' knowledge, the present case report provides the most intense investigation, evaluation and assessment of LVPA performed to date, using different imaging modalities and surgical findings. Movie 1(a) Two-dimensional TTE, four-chamber view. Movie 1(b) Two-dimensional TTE, short-axis view. Movie 2(a) Live/real-time 3D TTE, en face view of the LVPA imaged from the lateral side. Movie 2(b) Live/real time 3D TTE, en face view of the LVPA (arrow) imaged from the left ventricular side.