Prognosis of critically Ill patients in the ED and value of perfusion index measurement: A cross-sectional study
Objective Critically ill patients have high mortality and admission rates requiring early recognition and a rapid management. In the present study, we evaluated the prognostic parameters in these patients and the value of perfusion index measurement as a novel tool for accomplishing emergency department (ED) triage. Methods Seven hundred seventy patients admitted to the critical care area of the ED in a month composed the study population. Perfusion index and vital signs (blood pressure, pulse rate, body temperature, pulse oximeter, and respiration rate) of the study patients were recorded to the study form. The communication data, admitting time, comorbidities, capillary refilling time, and blood gas analysis findings if obtained were recorded. Outcome of patients at the end of the ED period such as discharge, admission to the hospital, and death were also recorded. Outcome of patients at 15th and 30th days was identified by telephone call follow-up or from hospital records. Results Two hundred seventy-eight patients (36.1%) were admitted to the hospital, 454 patients (59%) were discharged, 3 patients (0.4%) died in the ED, 25 patients (3.2%) were transferred to another hospital, and 10 patients (1.3%) refused treatment and left the ED. Sixty patients (7.8%), 39 (5.1%) of whom had died in 15 days' period, were dead at the end of 30-day follow-up period. Respiratory rate and pulse oximetry were significant parameters in hospital admission. Systolic blood pressure, diastolic blood pressure, pulse rate, respiratory rate, pulse oximetry, lactate levels in blood gas analysis, and ED length of stay were significant variables in 30-day mortality rate. Patients who were admitted to the hospital had higher rates of fever and diabetes. Patients who had died in the 30-day follow-up period had higher rates of diabetes and malignancy. In logistic regression analysis, the predictors of hospital admission were hypotension, fever, and pulse oximetry, whereas the predictors of 30-day mortality were systolic blood pressure, respiratory rate, pulse oximetry, and presence of malignancy. Conclusions Perfusion index as a novel triage instrument was found to be an insignificant tool in predicting hospital admission and mortality of critically ill patients in the ED. However, diabetes and malignancy were found to be independent factors in determining the prognosis of these patients in addition to vital signs and should be considered by ED physicians either in triage field or inside the ED. © 2015 Elsevier Inc.