Breast Metastases in Children and Adolescents With Rhabdomyosarcoma: A Large Single-Institution Experience and Literature Review
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Introduction: Breast metastasis is rare in childhood malignancies. Soft tissue sarcomas, especially rhabdomyosarcomas (RMS), and hematologic neoplasms, such as lymphomas, are the most common tumors that metastasize to the breast, albeit rare. Materials and Methods: All cases with breast metastasis within a cohort of 200 RMS patients followed in our institution during 1990 to 2014 were assessed retrospectively and the literature was reviewed. Results: There were 3 adolescent female patients with breast metastasis. All had alveolar histology. The primary tumors were in the parameningeal sites, extremities, and the perineum, respectively. Two patients had breast metastasis at diagnosis, and 1 during follow-up. In 1 breast lesion, there was a complete response to chemotherapy, and in another there was no response to chemotherapy, and the patient underwent radical mastectomy. In the third patient, there was partial response, and lesions progressed. All patients died with recurrent/progressive disease, 2 with no recurrence in the breast. In the English literature, there are 70 cases including our cases. All but 1 involve female patients, all adolescents, most have alveolar histology and poor prognosis. All had chemotherapy, whereas some had surgery and/or radiotherapy for local treatment. Conclusion: Breast metastasis should be considered in adolescent female patients with RMS. Optimal management is not clear. Besides chemotherapy, mastectomy and radiotherapy should be considered on a case basis.