Classification and determination of drinkability of thermal waters in Erciş and Çaldıran (Van, Turkey)
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CitationDüzen, H. (2019). Classification and determination of drinkability of thermal waters in Erciş and Çaldıran (Van, Turkey). European Journal of Chemistry, Environment and Engineering Sciences. 3(1), s. 1-13.
The therapeutic properties associated with thermal waters encourage people at spas to drink the thermal spa water. Therefore, this study was carried out for the purpose of determining the drinkability of thermal waters in Erciş and Çaldıran in Van, Turkey. In this study, the physicochemical parameters (electrical conductivity, pH, Cl−, HCO3−, PO43−, SO42−, NO3−, NO2−, F−, Ca2+, K+, Mg2+, Na+, total hardness and dissolved solids) were determined for five thermal spring samples collected from Erciş and Çaldıran in Van, Turkey. The surface temperatures of the thermal water samples varied from 25.8°C to 53.3°C with in-situ measurements. pH values varied from 7.2 to 8.5 (alkaline), and all samples exhibited relatively high salinity brackish waters (DS=1214–3196 mg/L). Total hardness measurements indicated that the waters are very hard. In Erciş, Hasanabdal and Taşkapı, thermal springs have Na–Cl and Na-Cl-SO4 characters, respectively. In Çaldıran, the Ayrancılar thermal spring has Na - HCO3 - Cl character, and other two thermal springs (Koçovası and Buğulukaynak) have the same characters with Mg - Ca –Na -HCO3. The ratios Na+/Ca2+, Na+/Mg2+, and (Na+ + K+)/(Ca2+ + Mg2+) were high in 80 % of the samples. This indicates the ion exchange process is important, which indicates that most of the thermal waters in the study area had developed over a long period at a depth sufficient to react with the rock. The statistical analysis of the physicochemical data for many samples revealed positive correlation values which enable a good interpretation of the results and reveal the composition of ions in thermal waters. Also, drinkability of thermal waterswas examined using WHO (2011) drinking water standards and various criteria (i.e. DS, TH, genesis, etc.), and other standards determined by some researchers. The results show that none of the thermal water samples are suitable for drinking. Thermal waters should not be consumed .
SourceEuropean Journal of Chemistry, Environment and Engineering Sciences
- Makale Koleksiyonu 
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